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Tianeptine is a drug used primarily in the treatment of major depression disorder, although it may also be used to treat asthma or irritable bowel syndrome. Chemically it is a tricylic antidepressant (TCA), but it has different pharmacological properties than typical TCAs as recent research suggests that tianeptine produces its antidepressant effects through indirect alteration of glutamete receptor activity
Tianeptine Sodium is primarily used for its mood boosting and anti-anxiety properties. This substance also has nootropic abilities in regards to individuals whose cognition is negatively impacted by mood disorders. It has the ability to improve focus and concentration in individuals who have poor attention spans as well.
Depressive illness devastates millions of lives. Tianeptine is a neuroprotective antidepressant that reverses the neuronal damage and lasting misery caused by chronic, uncontrolled stress. Tianeptine acts both as a non-sedating anti-anxiety agent and a non-stimulating mood-brightener. Uniquely in clinical medicine, tianeptine acts as a selective serotonin reuptake enhancer. Its puzzling efficacy as an antidepressant illustrates how little modern psychiatric medicine really understands about mind, mood and depression.
1.Tianeptine is a drug used for treating major depressive episodes (mild, moderate, or severe). It has structural similarities to the tricyclic antidepressants, but it has different pharmacological properties. Tianeptine is a selective serotonin reuptake enhancer (SSRE), opposite to the action of SSRIs. One review points to the cancellative effects of tianeptine and fluoxetine coadministration on serotonin reuptake. Another suggests that long-term administration of tianeptine has no effect on serotonin pathways. Tianeptine enhances the extracellular concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and modulates the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. There is also action on the NMDA and AMPA receptors. Recent reviews point to this pathway as a hypothesized mechanism of action, based on tianeptine's effect of reversing impaired neuroplasticity associated with stress.
2. Tianeptine reduces the effects of serotonin in the limbic system and the pre-frontal cortex, giving rise to a mood elevation, unlike the mood blunting associated with SSRIs. Like SSRIs, however, tianeptine's onset-of-action delay is approximately 2–6 weeks with improvements sometimes noticeable in as soon as one week. Its short-lived, but pleasant, stimulant effect experienced by some patients is shared with its predecessor, whose side effects related to dopamine reuptake inhibition resulted in Servier's research into tianeptine. Suggested dosage is two or three times daily, due to its short duration of action.
3. Tianeptine has strong antidepressant and anxiolytic properties with a relative lack of sedative,anticholinergic and cardiovascular adverse effects, thus suggesting it is particularly suitable for use in elderly patients and in those following alcohol withdrawal; such patients can be more sensitive to the adverse effects of psychotropic drugs. Recent interesting results indicate anticonvulsant and analgesic activity of tianeptine and its possible interaction with adenosine A1 receptors.
Some indication of tianeptine's potential range of application can be gleaned from its various patents. Thus patent US6599896 proposes “…use of tianeptine in the production of medicaments to treat neurodegenerative pathologies…cerebral ischaemia, cerebral traumatism, cerebral aging, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, demyelating pathologies, encephalopathies, chronic fatigue syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis post-viral fatigue syndrome, the state of fatigue following a bacterial or viral infection, and the dementia syndrome of AIDS”. A prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of tianeptine for fibromyalgia is currently under way in Spain. Regular tianeptine use may even be good for one's teeth, though it's unlikely to become a staple of orthodox dentistry. Despite this cornucopia of possibilities, tianeptine is not well known in Anglo-American psychiatry or among the English-speaking lay public.
4. Tianeptine is neuroprotective via multiple neurochemical and cellular mechanisms. In theory, tianeptine's neuroprotective action makes it a potential life-extension drug. When an organism is under stress, or perceives itself under stress, the hypothalamus secretes corticotropin-releasing hormone/factor (CRH/CRF). CRH/CRF in turn increases secretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. ACTH in turn stimulates the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Persistent, uncontrolled physical and psychosocial stress causes excess cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands. Excess cortisol causes dendritic shrinkage in the hippocampus and a contrasting growth of dendrites in the lateral amygdala. These stress-induced changes tend to lower mood; they can cause clinical depression in the genetically vulnerable. Current evidence suggests that tianeptine acts to prevent and even reverse stress-induced neural damage, promoting both neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity.
Tianeptine shows efficacy against serious depressive episodes (major depression), comparable to amitritylibe, imipramine and fluoxetine, but with significantly fewer side effects. It was shown to be more effective than maprotiline in a group of people with co-existing depression and anxiety.
Tianeptine has been found to be effective in depression in Parkinson's disease and in post traumatic stress disorder, of which it was as safe and effective as fluoxetine and moclobemide.
Tianeptine has been reported to be very effective for athsma. In August 1998, Dr. Fuad Lechin and colleagues at the Central University of Venezuela Institute of Experimental Medicine in Caracaspublished the results of a 52-week randomized controlled trial of asthmatic children.
HOW DOES TIANEPTINE WORK ?
What makes Tianeptine so effective is that it reduces stress on the brain, both physical and mental. Tianeptine causes stress-induced alterations morphology and synaptic plasticity. As it alleviates stress, it also improved learning, brain cognition and memory, two things often diminished by serious depressive conditions. (Zoldaz & et. al, 2010). Like many drugs, there are still studies and concerns that the efficiency and effectiveness of Tianeptine as a whole is difficult to ascertain. After all, Tianeptine, like many drugs, can have a vastly distinct effect on some people and entirely different one on others. More studies are needed to determine if there is a universal dose or regiment that can produce absolute results .
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|Tianeptine sodium salt|